Contributor: Gordon K. Klintworth
Diseases of the kidney are common. The numerous renal diseases include glomerulonephritis, diabetic glomerulosclerosis [glomerulosclerosis - diabetic], pyelonephritis and necrotizing papillitis [papillitis - necrotizing]. Many diseases that affect the kidney may involve the eye, including Alport syndrome, congenital nephrotic syndrome, cytomegalovirus infection, diabetes mellitus, Goodpasture syndrome, oculocerebrorenal syndrome, nephronophthisis [nephronophthisis - juvenile], Potter syndrome, renal cell carcinoma [carcinoma - renal cell], renal-coloboma syndrome, cerebello-oculo-renal syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, and Wilms tumor. Diseases of the kidney can cause uremia, renal failure and death. Diseases with prominent ocular lesions may also have renal abnormalities. For example, malformations of the kidney occur in Bardet-Biedl syndrome. In persons with renal disease an analysis of the blood urea content is used to monitor the efficiency of hemodialysis. Another useful method is to monitor the urea content in the tears. When this is done the lacrimal arginase also needs to be determined.