Contributor: Gordon K. Klintworth
Normocytic anemia is variety of anemia in which the majority of circulating erythrocytes are of normal size. The hemoglobin content, packed red cell volume and number or erythrocytes/cubic mm is proportionally decreased in the blood. Causes include acute blood loss chronic renal disease [renal disease - chronic] and other chronic diseases.
Normocytic anemia may produce edema of the optic nerve head [edema - optic nerve head ], retinal hemorrhages [hemorrhage - retina], and exudates. The frequency of retinal hemorrhages depends partly on the coexistence of anemia and thrombocytopenia. When anemia is only retinal hemorrhages occur in ~ 10% of patients, but when anemai is associated with thrombocytopenia were present 40% of patients develop retinal hemorrhages. When anemia andthromoctopenia are both present and severe (hemoglobin < 3 g/dL and platelet count < 50,000/mm3) 70% of individuals have retinal hemorrhages. Retinal hemorrhages are not a feature of thrombocytopenia alone.