Contributor: Gordon K. Klintworth
The thyroid gland produces thyroid hormones (thyroxine, triiodothyronine) that are stored within the thyroid follicles as thyroglobulin. The thyroid hormones regulate oxygen consumption and the intermediate metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins. The release of thyroid hormone requires activation of the thyroid gland by TSH that is produced in the anterior pituitary gland. Diseases of the thyroid gland include cretinism, hyperthyroidism, thyroiditis, toxic multinodular goiter [goiter - toxic multinodular], thyroid adenoma [adenoma - thyroid gland] and thyroid carcinoma [carcinoma - thyroid gland]. The ocular tissues can be involved in thyroid disease [thyroid eye disease].