Contributor: Gordon K. Klintworth
Iritis can also be acute [iritis - acute] or chronic [iritis - chronic]. Depending on the cause attacks of iritis may be isolated or recurrent. The causes of iritis include infection, autoimmune disease, ocular contusion, alkali burn, and a foreign body. Iritis may be a manifestation of several systemic diseases including Behçet disease and sarcoidosis. It can cause corneal edema [edema - cornea] by temporarily depressing the function of the corneal endothelium. Iritis can be unilateral or bilateral. When part of an autoimmune disease iritis is usually bilateral, whereas infectious iritis [iritis - infectious] is typically unilateral. When sarcoidosis causes iritis mutton-fat keratic precipitates and nodules in the iris may be the presenting manifestation of the disease. In sympathetic ophthalmia iritis is present in addition to the inflammation of the ciliary body and choroid. Iritis is often accompanied by cyclitis and choroiditis and under these circumstances visual impairment may be more severe and cystoid macular degeneration [macular degeneration - cystoid] can ensue. Sequelae of iritis include peripheral anterior synechiae, posterior synechiae, ectropion uveae, and secondary glaucoma [glaucoma - secondary]. Especially if secluseo pupillae develops iris bombé follows and the intraocular pressure becomes elevated. The increased intraocular pressure associated with iris bombé may be reversed if mydriasis is produced to interrupt the posterior synechiae or if an iridectomy establishes continuity between the anterior chamber and posterior chamber before peripheral anterior synechiae form. Sometimes occluseo pupillae follows intense or recurrent episodes of iritis and iris bombé occurs without central posterior synechiae.