Contributor: Gordon K. Klintworth
Brucellosis (undulant fever, Mediterranean fever, Malta fever) is a bacterial infection caused by genus Brucella (Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, Brucella suis, Brucella canis). Humans disease is acquired by ingesting milk or milk products that contain the pathogen, or by coming in direct contact with infected animals. The infection occurs worldwide, but is most prevalent in Africa, South America, Central America, the Arabian peninsula, Mexico, India, and countries around the Mediterranean sea. At one time undulant fever was an important cause of uveitis, but Brucella has never been isolated from an eye with uveitis. Other ophthalmological manifestations include papilledema, optic atrophy, retrobulbar neuritis [neuritis - retrobulbar], conjunctivitis, and endophthalmitis [endophthalmitis - bacterial].